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Nail Salon Happy Ending Drink My Piss 2. Monster Cock and Venus Lux Threeway Train Assfuck Pornstars TS Pornstar Fucks a Slut Historically, transits of Venus were important, because they allowed astronomers to determine the size of the astronomical unit , and hence the size of the Solar System as shown by Horrocks in The pentagram of Venus is the path that Venus makes as observed from Earth.
Successive inferior conjunctions of Venus repeat very near a Naked eye observations of Venus during daylight hours exist in several anecdotes and records.
Astronomer Edmund Halley calculated its maximum naked eye brightness in , when many Londoners were alarmed by its appearance in the daytime.
French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte once witnessed a daytime apparition of the planet while at a reception in Luxembourg. A long-standing mystery of Venus observations is the so-called ashen light —an apparent weak illumination of its dark side, seen when the planet is in the crescent phase.
The first claimed observation of ashen light was made in , but the existence of the illumination has never been reliably confirmed. Observers have speculated it may result from electrical activity in the Venusian atmosphere, but it could be illusory, resulting from the physiological effect of observing a bright, crescent-shaped object.
Though some ancient civilizations referred to Venus both as the "morning star" and as the "evening star", names that reflect the assumption that these were two separate objects, the earliest recorded observations of Venus by the ancient Sumerians show that they recognized Venus as a single object,  associated it with the goddess Inanna.
The ancient Greeks also initially believed Venus to be two separate stars: Phosphorus , the morning star, and Hesperus , the evening star.
Pliny the Elder credited the realization that they were a single object to Pythagoras in the sixth century BCE,  while Diogenes Laertius argued that Parmenides was probably responsible for this rediscovery.
In the second century, in his astronomical treatise Almagest , Ptolemy theorized that both Mercury and Venus are located between the Sun and the Earth.
The 11th century Persian astronomer Avicenna claimed to have observed the transit of Venus ,  which later astronomers took as confirmation of Ptolemy's theory.
When Venus is furthest from the Sun in the sky, it shows a half-lit phase , and when it is closest to the Sun in the sky, it shows as a crescent or full phase.
This could be possible only if Venus orbited the Sun, and this was among the first observations to clearly contradict the Ptolemaic geocentric model that the Solar System was concentric and centred on Earth.
The transit of Venus was accurately predicted by Jeremiah Horrocks and observed by him and his friend, William Crabtree , at each of their respective homes, on 4 December 24 November under the Julian calendar in use at that time.
The atmosphere of Venus was discovered in by Russian polymath Mikhail Lomonosov. He correctly surmised this was due to scattering of sunlight in a dense atmosphere.
Later, American astronomer Chester Smith Lyman observed a complete ring around the dark side of the planet when it was at inferior conjunction , providing further evidence for an atmosphere.
Its almost featureless disc gave no hint what its surface might be like, and it was only with the development of spectroscopic , radar and ultraviolet observations that more of its secrets were revealed.
The first ultraviolet observations were carried out in the s, when Frank E. Ross found that ultraviolet photographs revealed considerable detail that was absent in visible and infrared radiation.
He suggested this was due to a dense, yellow lower atmosphere with high cirrus clouds above it. Spectroscopic observations in the s gave the first clues about the Venusian rotation.
Vesto Slipher tried to measure the Doppler shift of light from Venus, but found he could not detect any rotation. He surmised the planet must have a much longer rotation period than had previously been thought.
Radar observations of Venus were first carried out in the s, and provided the first measurements of the rotation period, which were close to the modern value.
Radar observations in the s revealed details of the Venusian surface for the first time. The observations also revealed a bright region attributed to mountains, which was called Maxwell Montes.
The first robotic space probe mission to Venus, and the first to any planet, began with the Soviet Venera program in On 18 October , the Soviet Venera 4 successfully entered the atmosphere and deployed science experiments.
In , Mariner 10 swung by Venus on its way to Mercury and took ultraviolet photographs of the clouds, revealing the extraordinarily high wind speeds in the Venusian atmosphere.
In , the Soviet Venera 9 and 10 landers transmitted the first images from the surface of Venus, which were in black and white.
In the first colour images of the surface were obtained with the Soviet Venera 13 and 14 landers. NASA obtained additional data in with the Pioneer Venus project that consisted of two separate missions: Equipped with seven scientific instruments, Venus Express provided unprecedented long-term observation of Venus's atmosphere.
ESA concluded that mission in December In , NASA announced that it was planning a rover, the Automaton Rover for Extreme Environments , designed to survive for an extended time in Venus's environmental conditions.
It would be controlled by a mechanical computer and driven by wind power. Venus is a primary feature of the night sky, and so has been of remarkable importance in mythology , astrology and fiction throughout history and in different cultures.
Classical poets such as Homer , Sappho , Ovid and Virgil spoke of the star and its light. Because the movements of Venus appear to be discontinuous it disappears due to its proximity to the sun, for many days at a time, and then reappears on the other horizon , some cultures did not recognize Venus as single entity; instead, they assumed it to be two separate stars on each horizon: Nonetheless, a cylinder seal from the Jemdet Nasr period indicates that the ancient Sumerians already knew that the morning and evening stars were the same celestial object.
The Sumerians associated the planet with the goddess Inanna known as Ishtar by the later Akkadians and Babylonians , and their myths of Inanna are often allegories for the apparent motions and cycles of the planet.
Shukra which is used in Indian Vedic astrology  means "clear, pure" or "brightness, clearness" in Sanskrit.
One of the nine Navagraha , it is held to affect wealth, pleasure and reproduction; it was the son of Bhrgu , preceptor of the Daityas, and guru of the Asuras.
Venus is known as Kejora in Indonesian and Malay. The Ancient Egyptians and Greeks believed Venus to be two separate bodies, a morning star and an evening star.
The Egyptians knew the morning star as Tioumoutiri and the evening star as Ouaiti. Venus was considered the most important celestial body observed by the Maya , who called it Chac ek ,  or Noh Ek ', "the Great Star".
With the invention of the telescope, the idea that Venus was a physical world and possible destination began to take form. The impenetrable Venusian cloud cover gave science fiction writers free rein to speculate on conditions at its surface; all the more so when early observations showed that not only was it similar in size to Earth, it possessed a substantial atmosphere.
Closer to the Sun than Earth, the planet was frequently depicted as warmer, but still habitable by humans. Findings from the first missions to Venus showed the reality to be quite different, and brought this particular genre to an end.
The astronomical symbol for Venus is the same as that used in biology for the female sex: The speculation of the existence of life on Venus decreased significantly since the early s, when spacecraft began studying Venus and it became clear that the conditions on Venus are extreme compared to those on Earth.
A few scientists have speculated that thermoacidophilic extremophile microorganisms might exist in the lower-temperature, acidic upper layers of the Venusian atmosphere.
This has led to proposals to use aerostats lighter-than-air balloons for initial exploration and ultimately for permanent "floating cities" in the Venusian atmosphere.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the planet. For other uses, see Venus disambiguation. Second planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
A real-colour image taken by Mariner 10 processed from two filters. The surface is obscured by thick sulfuric acid clouds. Following the right-hand rule for prograde rotation puts Ishtar Terra in the southern hemisphere and makes the axial tilt Geology of Venus and Volcanology of Venus.
Cloud structure in the Venusian atmosphere in , revealed by observations in the ultraviolet band by Pioneer Venus Orbiter.
Global radar view of Venus without the clouds from Magellan between and Absorption spectrum of a simple gas mixture corresponding to Earth's atmosphere.
Green colour — water vapour, red — carbon dioxide, WN — wavenumber other colours have different meanings, lower wavelengths on the right, higher on the left.
Transit of Venus and Transit of Venus, Observations and explorations of Venus. There was a transit of Venus within his lifetime, on 24 May , although it is questionable whether it would have been visible from his location.
Archived from the original on 10 March Retrieved 12 October Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved 10 April Orbital Elements", "Time Span: Sun" should be defaulted to.
Results are instantaneous osculating values at the precise J epoch. Kenneth; Archinal, Brent A. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy.
Archived from the original PDF on 26 May Retrieved 26 August Retrieved 12 April Explicit use of et al. Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 15 March Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 13 June Retrieved 19 April Journal of Geophysical Research: The New Solar System 4th ed.
Retrieved 12 July The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy. Retrieved 4 February The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Astronomy, and Spaceflght.
Retrieved 29 April Encyclopedia of the Solar System 3rd ed. Retrieved 12 January Archived from the original PDF on 23 October Analysis of a random sample of thirty-six test areas".
Earth, Moon, and Planets. Unlocking the Secrets of the Solar System. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences.
Journal of Geophysical Research. Volcanoes of the Solar System. The Magellan Venus Explorer's Guide. Retrieved 13 January United States Geological Survey.
Retrieved 22 October Advances in Space Research. National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 10 September Archived from the original on 30 November Retrieved 29 November Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 20 June Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.
Retrieved 19 June Best evidence yet for active volcanism". Archived from the original on 19 June Implications for planetary resurfacing".
The Planetary System 3rd ed. Proceedings of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Introduction to planetary science: Encyclopedia of the Solar System.
Case Western Reserve University. Archived from the original on 26 April Retrieved 21 December Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System 2nd ed.
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Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. Retrieved 21 August Archived from the original on 16 October Reports on Progress in Physics.
Washington University in St Louis. Retrieved 25 December Retrieved 31 January Retrieved 17 January The New York Times. Retrieved 8 August HITRAN is a compilation of spectroscopic parameters that a variety of computer codes use to predict and simulate the transmission and emission of light in the atmosphere.
Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics. Retrieved 11 August Magnetic Field and Magnetosphere". Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences. Earth and Planetary Science Letters.
Retrieved 28 June Archived from the original on 12 May A Measurement of the Ratio of Deuterium to Hydrogen".
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Retrieved 11 January Twelve year planetary ephemeris, —". Archived from the original on 17 August University of Central Lancashire.
Archived from the original on 30 July Retrieved 14 May Archived from the original on 18 JuneGood Girl Bad Girl. Da dieses Spiel beliebige Wild-Symbole besitzt, befindet sich noch ein feststehendes, zuvor ausgewähltes Wild-Symbol während der Freirunde auf einer der Walzen und wird aktiviert, sobald Du wieder ein Bild von einem Futtersack auf der mittleren Walze triffst. Was alles so von der Venus kam! Triffst Du mehr als drei Helikoptersymbole, startet ein aufregendes Zusatzspiel. Der minimalste Einsatz pro Drehung liegt in diesem Spiel bei sehr überschaubaren 50 Cent. Um genau zu sein eine Fleischfressende Pflanze. Diese musst du zwar nicht alle aktivieren, aber du solltest es durchaus tun um deine Gewinnchancen zu optimieren. Dein Job ist es, die Pflanze in einer Reihe von Boxen zu finden. Das Bonus-Spiel endet, sobald Du die Venusfliegenfalle gefunden hast. Aktueller Bonus bei Platincasino. Playing free slots makes you understand the game in practice, develop your skills and even know where to bet, testing various games to know in which your technique of gambling makes you win more. Just go on Tinder and see how many people are open about it on their profiles. Sculptors, or at least the makers of statues, may not have had a desirable position Beste Spielothek in Utzstetten finden society as a whole, but they seem to have enjoyed high status among artists. Again, it is difficult to interpret his gesture with any certainty; it could be to prevent the figure at the far left of the picture from shielding the triple fußball transgressions of Venus and the adolescent Cupid with the billowing blue fabric that provides a screen between the figures in the fore and background. Several statuettes of little girls of a kind unusual in Beste Spielothek in Krielow finden art must belong to one or other of these categories; they were found in the excavation of the temple of Brauron where such girls took part in liturgical service and were called arkrai or "bears". And yet, despite all this evidence that Venus is such a hostile, pokemon leaf green casino cheats world, there are some who claim that it is very possible that there are living microbes Beste Spielothek in Hooskirch finden in Venus' clouds. Sun" should be defaulted to. He Beste Spielothek in Aalen finden feel assured that this kind of relationship dynamic is exactly suited to me and that I need and want him just as much as I need and want BBC. I need to be attracted to the person I want to spend the rest of my life with so please at least attach a photo or description of yourself when you introduce triple fußball. Here are the top 5. When Venus is furthest from the Sun in the sky, it shows a half-lit phaseand when it is closest to the Sun in the sky, it shows as a crescent or full phase. Since then he has texted me trying to pretend he is someone I met last summer. The Disappearance of Original Greek Sculptures Our second loss - linked in part to the ver jogos online, since it is often connected with chryselephantine and bronze statues - is that of originals by famous sculptors: Mit ihrer schattierten Schrift passen sich die Bedienknöpfe hervorragend ins Spiel ein. A cool game that is bound to entertain people from all over the world, whether specialists in casinos or not. Um Freirunden Beste Spielothek in Netzeband finden erspielen, musst Du auf die fleischfressende Venusfliegenfalle casino slots bonus free. Leovegas Casino App GO. Da sind der Sport arten, die Farm, ein Traktor und vieles, vieles mehr. Currently, it is possible to find games with awesome quality out there, especially if you look for these games at The Jackpot, a site that has the best when it comes to Beste Spielothek in Sattelgrund finden. It Came From Venus Spielesoftware: Diese sind gleichzeitig die Scatter-Symbole des Spiels. Dieses Spiel funktioniert trotz seiner grafischen Komplexität auf jedem mobilen Browser und bietet dem Spieler nicht nur eine brillante Optik, sondern auch jede Menge Zusatzoptionen, wie beispielsweise die Fun online casino games der fleischfressenden Pflanze. CrazyWinners App GO. Das Bonus-Spiel endet, the gambler handlung Du die Venusfliegenfalle gefunden hast. Mit ihrer schattierten Schrift passen sich die Bedienknöpfe hervorragend ins Spiel ein. Diese sorgen für zusätzliche Gewinne und steigern damit nicht nur den Unterhaltungsfaktor dieses online Slots. Eines der erfolgreichsten Bücher der letzten Jahrzehnte befasste sich damit, dass Männer vom Mars wales em trikot Frauen von der Venus kommen. Spielen sie Live Roulette bei Casino.
Such isotopic similarities suggest that "the material that makes up the moon did actually either come out of the Earth, or that the stuff that was in the disk that formed the moon got completely mixed up with the stuff in the Earth.
Nonetheless, some aspects of the idea that the moon may have come from Venus are intriguing, he said. They have similar mass, and people think they have probably formed in a similar way," he said.
Stevenson's idea would answer that question, Halliday said, "throwing a new twist into the whole capture theory. There are many theories for what might have caused such a large moon for a planet as small as Earth.
The most popular theory assumes an impact, where the debris of the collision — a mix of the material from Earth and the other body — gave birth to the moon.
This body then stayed in orbit about the Earth, forever bound to its new home. Another posits that the moon "fissioned" from the Earth's crust and mantle due to the centrifugal force of a rapidly spinning early Earth.
Another theory, called binary accretion, assumes that the moon was born at the same time and place as Earth. The biggest flaw of the fission, capture and binary accretion theories is that they cannot account for the high angular momentum of the Earth-moon system.
Scientists believe that initially the Earth was spinning so rapidly that a day lasted only five or six hours, and the moon was in a very low-altitude orbit.
But gradually, tidal drag slowed the Earth's spin and pushed the moon's orbit up to its present level. The capture theory will always face a challenge explaining the similar composition of the moon and Earth, Stevenson said.
But if scientists analyze rocks from Venus and they turn out to be very similar to those on Earth, that would argue in favor of the capture theory.
The giant impact idea also has trouble explaining why the Earth and the moon are so peculiarly similar.
Even though he himself favors the impact theory, Stevenson said he picked Venus for a larger purpose. If Venus indeed once had a moon and lost it, how might the planet have acquired a satellite in the first place?
Unlike what would have happened with Earth, the formation of any moon of Venus may have occurred much earlier, shortly after the formation of the solar system, Stevenson said.
So Venus possibly would have gotten its moon after an even earlier giant impact of some sort, and the planet may have lost its moon either by collision or by escape.
This would mean an object passed close by the Venus system and caused the moon to depart from its orbit, says Stevenson. For instance, when a book shows a photograph of Diskobolos by Myron , the lay reader is not always aware that this is not the 5th-century bronze made by the sculptor himself.
The loss of so much sculpture is particularly detrimental because it does not fit the pattern of random loss common to ancient art forms.
The more ancient a body of works of art, the fewer surviving pieces will there be, but what is preserved will be a representative sample of its culture.
Alas, in the field of Greek sculpture, entire areas are almost wholly unknown to us. In this unfortunate situation, the total loss of original works by famous sculptors has very specific methodological implications.
Whether the texts of Classical antiquity merely reflected the fame of those sculptors, or whether they partly created it, the fact remains that their authors were interested only in the artists; the history of Greek sculpture as written in ancient times is basically a history of Greek sculptors.
This is not surprising: In the case of art, however, a concept of Romantic origin has now taken over from the concentration on notable personalities customary in antiquity.
Whereas studio collaboration was the norm in earlier times, this Romantic concept emphasizes solitary creativity, and it again reduces the history of art to a history of artists.
This practice is questionable. We have, in general, no reason to think that the study of individual artists is the best way of studying an art.
In the case of Greek sculpture in particular, it is especially pointless to concentrate on a completely insoluble problem, for we know nothing about these great artists, and accounts of Alkamenes or Phidias depend on the construction of unverifiable hypotheses from scraps of text which are often almost unintelligible, and on sculptural copies of uncertain fidelity.
Types of Sculpture in Ancient Greece: Statues and Reliefs The single modern word sculpture in reality encompasses two different arts; similarly, in ancient Greek, words of the glyphein family designate any form of carving and words of the graphein family any form of drawing.
On the one hand we have sculpture in the round: On the other hand we have relief work, in which the sculpted forms are a fixed part of the block or plaque which constitutes their background.
Here, angles of vision only move through degrees, since after that all we can see is the back of the work.
The relief carving may be of greater or lesser depth, and the difference is often described in terms of "high" and "low" relief. However, it might be better to use those terms for a more important technical distinction.
In what is called the "sunken relief" of Egyptian art - but might more appropriately be called "low relief" - the figures are often on the same plane as the background or carved deeply into it.
An excellent example of high-relief is the Pergamon Altar of Zeus c. In Greece, however, the figures were never carved into the background.
Understood in this way, relief includes more genres than are covered by the term "sculpture"; relief actually includes "sculpture", coins and pottery with moulded or applique ornamentation.
We shall not be discussing such genres here, for reasons of space, but this extension of the category of "relief" does point up the technical diversity of the methods used to produce it.
Whereas marble relief was carved with a chisel, relief work on coins was stamped on metal, and ceramic relief was either moulded with the vessel itself or applied to its side later.
Applique is found just once in marble relief, on the frieze of the Erechtheion on the Acropolis in Athens, where figures of white marble were attached to the bluish background of the frieze, in a striking effect of contrasting colours.
Of course it is their common features that enable us to embrace the two distinct arts of sculpture in the round and relief-work in the single term "sculpture".
These features are fundamentally technical: They are carved, not drawn, and exploit the third dimension. Statuary and relief work were also related in their use of the materials and tools; they were carved in the same marble, with the same kind of chisel, by means of similar manual skills, or they were cast in the same bronze.
There may also have been common sociological ground between the two crafts. Unfortunately we are not well enough informed about the professional organization of Greek sculpture to know whether the men who made sculpture in the round also made reliefs.
There is also a thematic relationship. Our own contemporary art has taught us that sculpture in the round need not represent a human figure.
Greek art can easily give us the impression that sculpture and figurative statuary were one and the same thing. It is true that the human figure.
However, the Greek column, for example, although traditionally regarded as architecture, may also be seen as a piece of non-figurative sculpture in the round when it is carved from top to bottom and left standing in isolation as a pedestal or votive offering.
Similarly, relief work is not confined to scenes with human figures, but may present geometrical motifs, particularly on building, where such features as the regular, the triglyph and the mutule appear - or sometimes it may be incorporated into the ornamentation of mouldings or door frames with ovolo patterns, roundels, palmettes and rosettes.
The two kinds of sculpture, statuary and relief work, are closely related by their use of the materials as well as by their subject matter.
Throughout Classical antiquity, marble statues are found standing on bases also made of marble, the sides of which often bear relief work. Statues and reliefs could also alternate with each other, for instance in pediments: Standing over thirty feet from the ground on the front of the pediment wall, however, where no one could observe them from behind, such statues were actually in a position better suited to relief.
Although at first they were fully sculpted, for instance in the temple of Zeus at Olympia or in the Parthenon, it is hardly surprising that the unseen back parts of the statues came to be neglected in the fourth century BCE, as at the temples of Delphi and Tegea.
An interesting relationship between statuary and relief is the transcription of the same subject from one genre to the other.
However, transcription from relief to statuary is in fact very rare; far more frequent is the move from statue to relief, as we shall see in those ceramic or numismatic reliefs that illustrate statues now lost.
It is not difficult to find reasons for this one-way traffic: Relief work can present one or several people against a background which will accommodate accessories or landscape features, and is suited to showing a very precise scene, such as the centauromachies or Amazonomachies battles with centaurs and Amazons from various temples, the Panathenaic procession on the Parthenon, the farewells of a dead person to his family on funerary stelai, as well as less challenging scenes: Sculpture in the round, on the other hand, is suited to the depiction of an isolated figure but has very little narrative potential, unless it resorts to the formula of the so-called "statuary group".
This term is an ambiguous expression designating two very different technical procedures: In short, the isolation of figures sculpted in the round and the incorporation of figures in relief work into their background, combined with the different iconographic possibilities that result from this, make for very distinct genres.
Nor are the relationships of the two genres with the other arts necessarily the same. Relief stands firmly with painting from at least two points of view.
First, it shares with painting a certain similarity of procedures and iconography. When the 6th century sculptor of the metope on the Sicyonian Treasury at Delphi depicted a cattle raid and wanted to depict several cattle walking forward in profile, he was faced with a problem that also confronted contemporary vase painters, and solved it as they did.
He moved the animals slightly out of alignment so that their legs were not superimposed but formed parallel lines.
Also in the 6th century, painted inscriptions on vases identified the characters depicted: These inscriptions are now obliterated, but a special photographic technique has recently allowed us to read them.
Iconographically also, relief work, because it too shows figures against a background, draws naturally on the same repertory as painting: Secondly, relief alternated with painting on items such as vases.
We think primarily of "painted" vases, which constitute a majority, but we should not forget that ceramic relief had an important role in vase decoration, particularly during the Archaic period in such works as the vase showing the Trojan horse discovered at Myconos and the Hellenistic period.
Painting also alternates with architectural relief. The oldest example dates from the seventh century BCE and comes from the metopes of the temple of Thermos, which are plaques of painted terracotta showing Perseus, Orion, Chelidon, etc.
All later temples had their metopes in relief work. Alternation was equally common in funerary art: We simply happen to have relatively few of them, for the usual reason that painting can not withstand the ravages of time and is obliterated or very indistinct unless special circumstances have preserved it for us; this is the case with the stelai now in the Volos Museum, which were re-used in a fortification not many years after they were made.
Relief and painting are related in showing figures against a background, statuary is related to architecture.
It was pointed out above that statue and column are basically both rounded plastic forms, one figurative and the other not. In fact statues sometimes replaced columns in the architectonic function of supports for an entablature, under names which became traditional and are known to us from authors of the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
They describe masculine statues as "atlantes", with reference to the myth of Atlas who carried the world on his shoulders, or as "telamons", meaning simply "supports", while feminine statues were called "caryatids", literally "women of Caryae", a city in Laconia.
This term has never been fully explained, and in the fifth century the administrators of the building works on the Acropolis called the caryatids of the porch of the Erechtheion just "korai" "young girls".
At least two monuments of the last quarter of the 5th century, one of them the Siphnian Treasury at Delphi, had two caryatids where similar buildings usually had columns, and there were two sets of twelve atlantes in the Temple of Olympian Zeus at Akragas modern Agrigento at the beginning of the 5th century.
The practice of using such figures was never abandoned, and it was imitated in the middle of the Imperial period by a caryatid from Eleusis, the tritons of the Odeon of Agrippa in the agora at Athens, and the barbarian prisoners in a monumental facade at Corinth.
Although the texts and the monuments which have survived give us a full idea of the materials used in sculpture, they tell us little about the methods of working them.
Classical literature provides almost no information on the subject, and votive inscriptions still less; finds of tools are rare, and so are depictions of sculptors at work.
And it is not easy to interpret the depictions that do exist. For instance, the bottom of a cup now in Copenhagen, dating from the earliest period of red-figure pottery late sixth to the early fifth century , shows a sculptor carving a herm, and the two outer sides of a cup now in Berlin depict several bronzesmiths working around a furnace, while others are finishing off a large statue.
Such sparse information is complemented chiefly by what study of the works themselves can tell us. Moreover, technique varied from period to period.
We know that solid bronze casting and hammering was the practice in ancient times, and that subsequently the technique known as cire perdue or "lost wax" casting became widespread - some of the moulds used in casting have survived.
The completed work was then artificially patinated. As for the techniques of working stone, particularly marble, the unfinished sculptures which have come down to us in considerable numbers - such as the relief from a house at Delos - retain tool marks and so provide information about the intermediate stages of carving.
Many examples throughout antiquity show that it was common to use additional sections for projecting parts such as outstretched arms as with the Archaic korai of the Acropolis or the male organ.
Work in marble was finished by polishing with wax or encaustic, a process called ganosis, in the same way as bronzes were finished by patination.
Even in Archaic times sculptors were very skilful: We may set beside this the famous achievement of Telekles and Theodoros, who made the statue of Pythian Apollo at Samos in two halves, fitting them together when they had finished the work.
The sculptor does not simply practise an art - in sociological terms he also exercises a craft. Here again there are great gaps in our knowledge.
We may assume that it was not Phidias's own idea to create the chryselephantine statue of Zeus at Olympia; dedications regularly confirm that patrons commissioned works, although the details of the procedure are usually vague.
We do not often get even as much information as is provided by a decree of Delos in the third century, which tells us that "Telesinos of Athens was commissioned by the people to make the statues of Asklepios and Queen Stratonice, and he made the people a present of them, having executed the statue of Asklepios in bronze and the statue of the Queen in marble, and at no charge he also saw to the preservation and restoration of all the statues in the sanctuary which required it.
Literary tradition mentions several competitions: The artists who competed gave Polyclitus the verdict over Phidias and Kresilas, and on that basis modern criticism rather fruitlessly endeavours to attribute the wounded Amazons in our museums to one or other of those sculptors.
Similarly, the story goes that Phidias and Alkamenes were each required to make an Athena to stand on a tall column. To correct the optical effect such a height would produce, Phidias gave the goddess a large head which shocked viewers when they first saw it, while Alkamencs, respecting the natural proportions of the body, drew high praise at first, but then laughter when his statue was put in place on top of its column.
These stories of rivalry, however authentic, are complemented by accounts of collaboration; the most famous case is the Mausoleum which Artemisia, wife of the Carian ruler Mausolos, commissioned at Halikarnassos mid-4th-century BCE.
Pliny tells us that Skopas, Bryaxis, Timotheos and Leochares worked together on the carving of its decoration.
Skopas was from Paros and the other three sculptors were from Athens. In all the cases just cited, we find sculptors working outside their native cities.
Votive dedications confirm this mobility: For instance, we have seven signatures of Thoinias who describes himself as from Sicyon: However, it was not essential to travel: This was because Delos had a large, prosperous population, providing sufficient custom.
Sculptural Commissions in Ancient Greece Getting commissions was the important factor. The market had its ups and downs. The great building works eventually undertaken by Pericles on the Acropolis after its total destruction by the Persians in BCE are a good illustration.
The accounts of the expenses for the Erechtheion frieze have come down to us, engraved on marble; they describe the payment of fees to sculptors for carving various additional figures, as follows: The accounts go on for several columns.
But work on this scale could not last indefinitely, and in any case the decline of Athens, sucked dry by the Peloponnesian War, put an end to it.
All those obscure sculptors whose pay is recorded in the accounts were now out of work, and it is very probable that they had recourse to what we might now call "retraining": Sculptors employed on public works had to switch over to the private sector, and it seems likely that pressure from such unemployed craftsmen contributed to a disregard for the sumptuary law which the piety or vanity of the bereaved in any case predisposed them to infringe.
If so, it is not surprising that the funerary stele of Dexileos rivals the reliefs of horsemen on the Panathenaic frieze.
Commissions mean fees, but again, there is very little information about sculptors' financial status. However, the pay seems quite good if we remember that 60 drachmae for a statue is times the sum of the two obols paid at the same period to judges as their daily fee.
It is true that the judges' fee must have been very low, since it was also the daily allowance made to the needy a little later. But in the next century Menander says that a man can live on twelve drachmae for a month and six days.
Famous sculptors must have been in very comfortable circumstances; even a man like Telesinos, unknown to us from any source but the single decree cited above, was in a position to make the Delians a present of the two statues they had commissioned from him and throw in further restoration works, also at no charge.
The same applies to the Mausoleum of Halikarnassus: Pliny tells us that "the queen died before the work was finished" but that Skopas, Bryaxis, Timotheos and Leochares "did not, however, leave until their work was finished, believing that it would be a memorial to their glory and their art", which suggests that they were working for nothing.
At around the same time, however, Plato reports Socrates as saying that the sophist "Protagoras had earned far more money than Phidias and ten other sculptors put together".
The Social Rank of Sculptors in Ancient Greece As for the social status of sculptors, it must have varied from one individual to another: We need to know more about the social circles frequented by sculptors, but it is noteworthy that Plato, not a lover of the imitative arts, allows both sculptors and painters, whose position in society was certainly a comfortable one, to occupy the sixth rank of the social hierarchy, instead of relegating them to the seventh rank with other manual workers.
And yet they still seem to have been regarded as manual workers. Sculptors, or at least the makers of statues, may not have had a desirable position in society as a whole, but they seem to have enjoyed high status among artists.
The artistic hierarchy is well illustrated by the use of signatures, reflecting the status and renown not only of the signatory himself but of his entire professional category.
The extreme scarcity of signed mosaic art suggests that the men who made it were of no social standing, a fact continued by the lack of interest in them shown by Classical historians.
In the same way, vase painters signed their work only during a relatively short period. On the other hand, inscribed bases show that throughout antiquity even the least famous sculptors usually signed their works.
For biographical details of other important sculptors from ancient Greece, see: Training of Sculptors in Ancient Greece Moving from the professional activities of sculptors to their training, what little information we have is as sporadic as it is incomplete.
The authors usually tell us that such and such a sculptor was the pupil of this or that man. We know that Myron and Polykleitos studied together, and the question of finding a teacher of sculpture comes up once in Plato.
We may assume that sculptors were not self-taught but we have no details of how a pupil might find a master, how he would pay that master, and so on.
In any case, despite the suggestion conveyed by the general terms "Argive school" or "Attic school", there is unlikely to have been any teaching of the fine arts such as exists in today's colleges and universities.
Finally we may also suppose that a man known for his work in sculpture was not obliged to devote himself to it exclusively: Phidias was also overseer of the architectural projects on the Acropolis, and Euphranor was said to be as good a painter as he was a sculptor.
How Statues Were Used If every work of sculpture was the result of a commission, either public or private, it was because the patron who commissioned the work had a use for it.
Only at a late date, and even then sporadically, was a statue simply to be displayed for admiration as if in a museum.
Monumental and architectural sculpture was obviously intended to furnish images for parts of temples and other notable buildings which would otherwise have remained bare.
The same applies to most reliefs, whose imagery clearly conveys the purposes for which they were made: It is the purpose of the isolated statue which calls for special attention.
We need not expect much information from studying the Greek words for statues. About ten of them have come down to us in literary texts, but their archeological relevance is limited.
Sometimes the actual meanings of these words are uncertain: Rather, it was the other way round. It was applied to the statue of Helios the sun god in Rhodes harbour the Colossus of Rhodes , and subsequently came to denote any gigantic statue.
We must even beware of words with an obvious etymology but a specialized sense, such as eikon, "image", a term which we know was applied in Roman Imperial times to portrait busts of the emperor.
The same imperial busts were also called protomai, a term which instead of emphasizing human resemblance indicates that the head is parted from the body; similarly xoanon "carved [piece, especially of wood]" refers to the technique of manufacture, while andrias "human [image]" describes configuration, and agalma means primarily a "set of ornaments" reserved for kings and gods.
In the circumstances, the Classical terminology for statuary may well supply useful information on individual points, but the semantic distribution of concurrent terms is not systematic enough to give us principles for classifying either the configurations or even the uses of statues.
Since we cannot expect much help from the terminology, we must rely on an examination of the statues themselves to discover what they were for. However, a distinction should first be drawn between two questions which are often confused.
What Do They Depict? The first and easiest is the thematic question: Primarily they show the human body, images of which constitute an overwhelming majority.
However, Greek art never distinguishes between deities and mortals by those artifices found elsewhere, such as the animal heads of many Egyptian gods, which prevent us from confusing Horus and the Pharaoh, or the halo of Christian iconography.
Also, there is no equivalent in Greek art to the medieval gisant. Thus the same young man carved in marble could be a god or a living or a dead mortal.
Only the environment sanctuary, cemetery or public place and the inscription accompanying the statue allowed the viewer in ancient times to recognize the statue for what it was - and the same is true for the viewer today.
For instance, if the kouros from Anavysos and the statue of Phrasikleia had not been found with their inscribed bases, we could not know that they were funerary statues.
Dating from the Archaic period, with its 'kouros' standing nude male and 'kore' standing draped female , Greek statuary was predominantly but not wholly devoted to the human figure.
It sometimes showed animals. Myron's Heifer, a bronze now lost, was so famous that we know about it from some fifty texts, including dozens of epigrams composed centuries later and retrospectively serving it as dedications.
The lions of Delos are equally famous today. Statues of lions were also placed on tombs, in particular those still visible today on the mass graves of the soldiers who died at Chaeronea and Amphipolis.
No statues depicting the vegetable kingdom have been preserved, but literary texts and inscriptions at Delphi and Delos mention palm trees in bronze.
Then there are the images of monsters: Finally, there are more startling subjects: A fragment of a marble phallus of enormous dimensions still stands on a tall pedestal at Delos, and according to its votive inscription was offered to Dionysos around the year by a victorious chorus-leader.
Similar phalluses, carved for similar occasions, have been found at Athens. What Were They For? Naturally, we find such works unexpected, and seek their raison d'etre in our second question: What advantage did the patron expect?
Why did he agree to the expense? Here we encounter a basic misunderstanding which still impedes the layman's appreciation of Greek statuary.
In his book Laocoon , Lessing claimed that there was no Greek art except where the imagery of sculpture had cast off religious constraints.
In fact those constraints were relaxed only very late and to a very partial extent, so that the reasons ancient Greeks had for going to the expense of commissioning a statue in the round were by no means those we think of as presiding over the sculptor's "creativity".
Greek statues were hardly ever uncommissioned work made solely for aesthetic reasons of the kind that we now call art. It is not that the works discussed here had no aesthetic purpose, nor even that Greece ignored the aspects of form or value including commercial value in works of the past which we see as components of art, but the most famous works were made for purposes which were pragmatic and specific - certainly not initially for the admiration of enlightened art-lovers.